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Dry Cleaning solvent, used to clean parts is potentially dangerous to personnel and property.

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Do not use near open flame or excessive heat. Most of the numbered sections begin with a word or words which describe an area which may present a problem; if the user has trouble with a bolt, for instance, she does not need to search for the word buried in the text; she may look to the left margin. Clean as you work and as needed. Use dry cleaning solvent P-D on all metal surfaces. Use soap and water when you clean rubber or plastic material. You can't try them all with a tool, of course, but look for chipped paint, bare metal or rust around bolt heads.

If you find one you think is loose, tighten it, or report it to organizational maintenance if you can't tighten it. If you find a bad weld, report it to organizational maintenance. Tighten loose connectors and make sure the wires are in good shape. Wet spots show leaks, of course, but a stain around a fitting or connector can mean a leak. If a leak comes from a loose fitting or connector, tighten it.

If something is broken or worn out, report it to organizational maintenance. It is necessary for you to know fluid leakage affects the status of your vehicle. Class I: Seepage of fluid as indicated by wetness or discoloration not great enough to form drops. Capacity, Rough Terrain, Army Model MHE [NSN ] Immediately following this section is a troubleshooting table through which the reader can easily reference a given problem to any of several likely causes.

A manufacturer mixing toxic chemicals, a surgeon using a new technique for tonsillectomies, and a maintenance worker de-icing an aircraft are all operating in circumstances in which errors might be costly and even life-threatening. A reader who knows why she is performing certain operations can better anticipate, understand and respond to situations the manual does not mention. Moreover, a reader made to understand why she is performing a certain action is more likely to remember it to begin with. And the more the reader remembers the better: many dangerous procedures demand reactions so quick as to make reference to a checklist impossible.

The author of educational instructions does not need to limit steps to a single sentence. In fact, several paragraphs may be necessary to explain the consequences of particular actions -- especially when those consequences present a danger. Many educational instruction manuals include tutorials which instruct the reader and simultaneously test his knowledge.

Software programs include printed instructions which show their user what the screen should look like at every crucial juncture; if the visual on the page does not match what he sees before him, he knows to return to a previous step. And because the user is actively participating, he is more likely to remember what he learns. Some tasks vary so much with circumstance that no single set of instructions could possibly be useful.

For instance, the proper disposal of hazardous wastes by research and teaching laboratories is complicated because such facilities generate a great variety of wastes, and because types of wastes require different methods of disposal. No universal instruction manual is feasible. What is feasible is a kind of process description which allows for a range of contingencies. Instructions and International Audiences.

Audiences have a need so basic we may forget it: familiarity with the language itself. For reasons of liability discussed above, instructions are very sensitive to this need. Canada has laws requiring instructions to be written in English and French. And American manufacturers working with Common Market countries often do the same. Language may be the most obvious aspect of a culture, but there are many others, and an author of instructions must be aware of them as well. The United States' is a relatively litigious society -- a fact which greatly affects instruction manuals written here -- determining their intended audience, their detail, their many cautions and warnings.

Scientific and Technical Communication: Theory, Practice and Policy | Chapter 8: Part 2

But such litigiousness does not exist worldwide. In Japan, for instance, lawsuits are a last resort -- the cultural assumption is that because no harm was intended, no one should be punished. In this context, it is not surprising that by one estimate, in that the ratio of lawyers to engineers in the United States is 50 to 1, and in Japan, 10 to 1.

Consequently, Japanese instruction manuals are quite different from those discussed in this chapter. Although they may have a general warning as a preface, they carry few or none of the detailed cautions and warnings that are mandatory in American instructions. Other cultural factors come into play as well. For instance, because the Japanese regard commands as rude, steps are likely to be presented not in imperative voice "Turn 3 valve clockwise" , but in a conditional tone "When one turns 3 valve clockwise, the solution is released from Chamber A.

The best advice for writing instructions to an audience from another culture is contained in a set of instructions from that culture. Of course, even instruction manuals which originate in, for instance, Mexico, may be insensitive to their audience.

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An author should find those written by an organization which is long-established and respected. Instructions and New Communications Technologies.

Fokker’s Fabulous Flying Coffin

Most scientific and technical communication will be changed by emerging technologies. And instructions are likely to be altered most. New technologies are making possible instructions which do away not only with texts, but with words themselves. A hypertext is a type of computer-generated document which allows its user to choose a number of ways in which to approach it: she may skip certain portions of the text, view an example embedded in the text, review a section of the text, or refer to data relating one section to another.

In short, a hypertext allows its user to cross-reference parts of the text in such a way as to discover links between them, and to find a path through the document. A hypertext instruction manual might guide its user with a series of prompts:. If the user indicates she would like to learn "mouse skills," the next screen will describe various uses of the mouse. Or, if she indicates she would like to learn menu skills, the next screen will take a different path, and describe various uses of the menu. In the sense that a hypertext allows a user ready access to any portion of it, it allows the user to tailor the instructions to his own needs.

Sophisticated hypertexts have embedded sound: cautions and warnings may be accompanied by a tone, so alerting a user more effectively than would print alone.

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Others have embedded videos -- particularly useful for demonstrating complicated procedures. Expert systems are attempts to reproduce the expertise of a human being in an electronic form. More specifically, they are computer programs working in concert with one or more databases to simulate the problem-solving and decision-making processes of a human expert within a specific field.

Expert systems are, in part, very sophisticated databases. While conventional databases contain only quantifiable knowledge, expert system databases contain knowledge gained by an expert over years of experience, and which is difficult to reduce to numbers.

https://forresulmontfo.cf This "rule of thumb" knowledge enables the system to make educated guesses, to recognize promising approaches to a problem, and even to accommodate incomplete data. Expert systems are also very sophisticated intermediaries between database and user. Conventional databases have intermediaries of menus and prompts which help a user find his way to specific information.

But they are simple and fairly rigid, permitting only a narrow range of questions.

Airplane design #2 - Flight Dynamics

Expert system intermediaries, on the other hand, are flexible and amazingly responsive: they allow a user to ask vague questions, and may even help him decide which questions to ask. In many fields, performance-oriented instructions have given way to expert systems. The technology is young, but can already claim some outstanding successes. One expert system has been used to suggest new avenues of research.

If and how expert systems will affect more mundane activities remains to be seen. In the years ahead manufacturers may place electronic repair manuals in a kind of electronic library accessible via a wide-band communication network, giving skilled consumers and professional servicepeople the advantage of expert advice, and unskilled consumers an idea of the seriousness of the problem and the probable cost of its remedy. Many of you will be using expert systems before long.

European Union Aviation Safety Agency

Some of you will be designing them, or helping to design them. At present the field is expanding rapidly, and nothing like a format exists. But here as in other realms, common sense applies. Expert systems will be judged by the same criteria with which we now judge instruction manuals: source and quality of knowledge, and ease of use. Interactive Video and Virtual Reality. The latter system is safer, but the former, on the whole, turns out the larger proportion of good riders. It is very much the same in learning to ride a flying machine; if you are looking for perfect safety you will do well to sit on a fence and watch the birds, but if you really wish to learn you must mount a machine and become acquainted with its tricks by actual trial.

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There may now be a third way to learn to ride the horse. If the future of performance-oriented instructions might be expert systems, then the future of educational instructions is interactive video and virtual reality. Proponents of interactive video claim that it offers its users an experience less like watching and more like doing. A certain interactive video may, for instance, teach Newton's First Law of Motion by displaying an image of an object moving through a frictionless environment, and allowing the user to change the environment to an atmosphere and thus slow the object, or introduce a gravitational field and so change the object's direction of travel.

The user would learn Newton's Law intuitively, and so perhaps more easily. A still more convincing reproduction of actual experience is offered by virtual reality programs.

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Virtual reality may be thought of as an extension of interactive video -- providing its user visual, audio and in some cases even tactile input, and so moving him closer to the experience of performing an action. One of the first virtual reality programs was created to provide an intuitive understanding of molecular bonding. The user looks into stereoscopic lenses which show a computer-generated simulation of two molecules.