Download e-book Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers book. Happy reading Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers Pocket Guide.

That is, it may involve certain typical "path way s", but the latter seem to be built out of separate stepping-stones which can often be seen in isolation and whose individual outlines are always distinctly recognizable". In the process of grammaticalization, an uninflected lexical word or content word is transformed into a grammar word or function word. The process by which the word leaves its word class and enters another is not sudden, but occurs by a gradual series of individual shifts. The overlapping stages of grammaticalization form a chain, generally called a cline.

These shifts generally follow similar patterns in different languages. It is believed that the stages on the cline do not always have a fixed position, but vary. However, Hopper and Traugott 's famous pattern for the cline of grammaticalization illustrates the various stages of the form:. This particular cline is called "the cline of grammaticality" [18] or the "cycle of categorial downgrading", [19] and it is a common one. In this cline every item to the right represents a more grammatical and less lexical form than the one to its left.

Multiple Correspondence and Typological Convergence in Contact-Induced Grammaticalization

It is very common for full verbs to become auxiliaries and eventually inflexional endings. In Present-Day English PDE , this form is even shortened to 'll and no longer necessarily implies intention, but often is simply a mark of future tense see shall and will.

Martin Hilpert - Three open questions in Diachronic Construction Grammar

The final stage of grammaticalization has happened in many languages. In Latin the original future tense forms e. Instead, a phrase like cantare habeo , literally I have got to sing acquired the sense of futurity cf. I have to sing.

Approaches to Grammaticalization Volume II. Types of grammatical markers 19:2

Finally it became true future tense in almost all Romance languages and the auxiliary became a full-fledged inflection cf. In some verbs the process went further and produced irregular forms [cf. Compare the German verb wollen which has partially undergone a similar path of grammaticalization, and note the simultaneous existence of the non-grammaticalized Modern English verb to will e.

An illustrative example of this cline is in the orthography of Japanese compound verbs.

In Grammaticalization Hopper and Traugott state that the cline of grammaticalization has both diachronic and synchronic implications. Diachronically i. However, synchronically i. The studying and documentation of recurrent clines enable linguists to form general laws of grammaticalization and language change in general.

It plays an important role in the reconstruction of older states of a language. Moreover, the documenting of changes can help to reveal the lines along which a language is likely to develop in the future.

go to site

Friedrich Breyer - Google Scholar-sitater

In the words of Bernd Heine , "grammaticalization is a unidirectional process, that is, it leads from less grammatical to more grammatical forms and constructions". In addition, unidirectionality refers to a general developmental orientation which all or the large majority of the cases of grammaticalization have in common, and which can be paraphrased in abstract, general terms, independent of any specific case. The idea of unidirectionality is an important one when trying to predict language change through grammaticalization and for making the claim that grammaticalization can be predicted.

Lessau notes that "unidirectionality in itself is a predictive assertion in that it selects the general type of possible development it predicts the direction of any given incipient case ," and unidirectionality also rules out an entire range of development types that do not follow this principle, hereby limiting the amount of possible paths of development.


Although unidirectionality is a key element of grammaticalization, exceptions exist. Indeed, the possibility of counterexamples, coupled with their rarity, is given as evidence for the general operating principle of unidirectionality. According to Lyle Campbell , however, advocates often minimize the counterexamples or redefine them as not being part of the grammaticalization cline. An example is the phrase to up the ante, which incorporates the preposition up a function word in a verb a content word but without up becoming a verb outside of this lexical item. Since it is the entire phrase to up the ante that is the verb, Hopper and Traugott argue that the word up itself cannot be said to have degrammaticalized, a view that is challenged to some extent by parallel usages such as to up the bid , to up the payment , to up the deductions , to up the medication , by the fact that in all cases the can be replaced by a possessive my, your, her, Bill's, etc.

Examples that are not confined to a specific lexical item are less common. One is the English genitive -'s, which, in Old English , was a suffix but, in Modern English, is a clitic. As Jespersen put it,. In Modern English Traugott cites a counterexample from function to content word proposed by Kate Burridge : the development in Pennsylvania German of the auxiliary wotte of the preterite subjunctive modal welle 'would' from 'wanted' into a full verb 'to wish, to desire'. In comparison to various instances of grammaticalization, there are relatively few counterexamples to the unidirectionality hypothesis, and they often seem to require special circumstances to occur.

  • Diagnosis and Management of Learning Disabilities: An Interdisciplinary/Lifespan Approach.
  • Are there two different ways of approaching grammaticalization? | Bernd Heine - diaprindacuges.gq.
  • Citazioni per anno!
  • MIT RadLab {complete set} Vol 06 - Microwave Magnetrons;
  • A Common Korean and Japanese Copula.

Linguists have come up with different interpretation of the term 'grammaticalization', and there are many alternatives to the definition given in the introduction. The following will be a non-exhaustive list of authors who have written about the subject with their individual approaches to the nature of the term 'grammaticalization'. Since then, the study of grammaticalization has become broader, and linguists have extended the term into various directions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Process of words becoming part of a language grammar. Retrieved Unity and diversity in grammaticalization scenarios pdf. Berlin: Language Science Press. Expanding the Definition of Grammaticalization.

Account Options

Categories : Historical linguistics. Hidden categories: Use American English from January All Wikipedia articles written in American English Articles with short description All Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed from March All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Articles containing Japanese-language text.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In historical linguistics and discourse analysis , grammaticalization is a type of semantic change by which a a lexical item or construction changes into one that serves a grammatical function, or b a grammatical item develops a new grammatical function.

Citações por ano

The editors of The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar offer as a "typical example of grammaticalization. The term grammaticalization was introduced by French linguist Antoine Meillet in his study "L'evolution des formes grammaticales. Recent research on grammaticalization has considered whether or to what extent it is possible for a grammatical item to become less grammatical over time—a process known as degrammaticalization.

Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks. Updated January 26, From the point of view of change, forms do not shift abruptly from one category to another, but go through a series of small transitions, transitions that tend to be similar in type across languages. Forms comparable to back of the house in English recur all over the world in different languages. The potential for change from lexical noun, to relational phrase, to adverb and preposition, and perhaps even to a case affix, is an example of what we mean by cline.

  • Nucleic Acid-Protein Recognition?
  • Arthur van Roermund - Citazioni di Google Scholar;
  • Duplicate citations?
  • Grammaticalization.
  • ECAI 2006, 17th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
  • Solid State Proton Conductors: Properties and Applications in Fuel Cells;
  • Credit Derivatives Handbook - Volume 2!

Hopper and Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Grammaticalization , 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press,