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PDF Experiencing climate change in Bangladesh : vulnerability and adaptation in Coastal regions

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In recent past, the country faced 2 major cyclones in and The IPCC defines adaptation as the "adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities". From this main definition, three types of adaptation are distinguished: [5].

Climate change adaptation in Bangladesh - Wikipedia

It highlights the relevance of governance, social capital, and adaptation policies in creating inequality, and states that adaptation is a long term process where concepts of subjectivity, knowledge and authority result in greater efforts to create a more just society. From a socio-political understanding is a process that mediates how people and collectives cope with multiple and persistent environmental and social changes.

This reframing of adaptation derives in four propositions: [7]. The geographic location of Bangladesh makes it highly prone to natural disasters. Situated in between the intersection of Himalayan mountains in the North and the Bay of Bengal in the South, the country experiences 2 completely different environmental conditions leading long monsoons and catastrophic natural disasters.

With the new phenomenons like climate change and sea level rising, the situation is getting even worst. Bangladesh frequently experiences gigantic cyclones and floods, being criss-crossed by hundreds of rivers and one of the largest river systems in the whole world, the estuarial region of Padma , Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers. Bangladesh is also one of the most populated countries in the world and the high population density of the country makes it vulnerable to any kind of natural disasters.

The unsustainable process of urbanisation makes the city dweller vulnerable to climate change as well. Bangladesh is one of the countries that contributes the less to greenhouse emissions , yet has one of the highest vulnerability conditions to global warming , prone to a significant number of climate related disasters. There are serious consequences from the impacts of climate change on different sectors of the economy in the country, mainly but not exclusively concentrated in the agriculture sector. However, when running a detailed analysis, the poverty, inequity and environmental injustices are even higher.

Besides the consequences from the impacts of Climate Change, the whole country is yet affected by the results of maladaptation processes. Most of the aid and efforts put in alleviating the systems from vulnerability factors, have being object of bad management resulting in accentuating ethnic hierarchies in some communities, trapping the poor, powerless and displaced in a patronage system, leading to increased human insecurity and intensified violent conflict.

Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction may seem two different fields but however both are similar in their objectives which is to build resilience in the face of hazards. Likewise Disaster Risk Reduction seeks to influence development decision-making and protect development aspirations from environment related risks. The effectiveness of both adaptation and DRR are limited if they are not viewed within the broader context of sustainable development.

Bangladesh has shown important results on disaster risk mitigation and is in fact, one of the world leaders in disaster management. Once highly dependent on international aid for providing relief to the affected communities through ad-hoc relief supports, the country soon realized the importance of establishing a culture of resilience to mitigate the risk occurred from the catastrophes. Saving lives, ii. Protecting investments iii.

Impacts of the 2017 Hurricane Season

Effective recovery and building. One of the major successes of Bangladesh on adaptation of climate change is a strong institutional setup. Bangladesh is also supported by different international organizations such as United Nations, World Bank, and so on. Being an agrarian society, people of Bangladesh are greatly dependent on various forms of agriculture. A steady increase in agricultural production with the use of modern equipment and scientific methods, agriculture has been a key driver to eradicate rural poverty in Bangladesh. The risk of sea level rising and global warming is the biggest challenge not only to country's agricultural improvement but also the success on poverty reduction.

As agricultural production is heavily related with temperature and rainfall, the current change in weather conditions is creating negative impact on crop yielding and the total area of arable land has been decreased. According to a report published by the Ministry of Environment and Forests - GoB, 1 degree Celsius increase in maximum temperature at vegetative, reproductive and ripening stages there was a decrease in Aman rice production by 2. These challenges lead to food scarcity and insecurity for the huge populace of the country.

There are several adaptation measures which are practised to cope up with the abnormal behaviour of climate such as: resilient varieties of crops, diversification, change in cropping pattern, mixed cropping, improved irrigation facility, adopting soil conservation, agroforestry and so on. The Bangladesh National Adaptation Programme Action - NAPA in its action plan have collected, structured and ranked a series of climate adaptation needs and vulnerabilities, as well as sector-specific costs and benefits.

These proposed actions have considered poverty reduction and security of livelihoods with a gender perspective as the most important set of criteria for prioritization of adaptation needs and activities.

Experiencing climate change in Bangladesh: Vulnerability and adaptation in coastal regions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved UNDP in Bangladesh. Glossary A-D". The adaptation concept in the climate change literature".

Climate Change and vulnerability

On the other hand, while perfect hydrological process model is vital for concluding impacts of climate change on agriculture, global climate models are sometimes unsuccessful in reproducing contemporary climate in other respects, i. Furthermore, Bhuiyan and Dutta tried to determine the impacts of sea level rise with the help of a hydrodynamic model. In so doing, they adopted a newly developed salinity flux model with the existing hydrodynamic model in order to get a comprehensive understanding of the issue.

They conducted their study in the coastal region of Gorai river network in the South West region of Bangladesh. Coastal regions are vulnerable to changes in climate. The authors claim here that sea level did increase cm every decade over the last century which was so high in coastal regions because of low land. The 4th IPCC report also noted that vulnerability of coastal areas was increasing because of rise in sea level in 21st century. As a result of rise in sea level, coastal regions suffer from two things such as flooding and salinization. These two severe problems for coastal regions also have effects on fresh water resources since rise in sea level amplifies the salinity of both surface water and ground water through the intrusion of salt water.

Coastal Community Adaptation to Climate Change-Induced Salinity Intrusion in Bangladesh

Therefore, it is one of the continuous problems of coastal regions to maintain continuous flow of fresh water. Since Bangladesh is a tropical country, the country, particularly its coastal regions, because of their location, frequently faces flooding, one of the most devastating natural hazards. Furthermore, the coastal regions where a large number of population lives, are low-lying and poorly protected land. The burning examples are the historic loss of hundreds of thousands of lives in the cyclones of and Following the past experience of cyclonic history, Karim and Mimura argue that Bangladesh is more vulnerable to cyclonic storms and flooding because of climate change and sea level rising.

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Another thing is that geographically the country is situated in the danger zone of cyclone and consequently a large number of people living there are in great risk of climate change and sea level rising. However, we observe decreasing in the number of loss of lives in cyclone Sidr because of the development of cyclone warning and flight system though still the existing capacity of cyclone shelters is inadequate to accommodate all the affected people living in the risk zones.

This shows the positive consequences of adaptive strategies taken in those coastal regions at the prime time of cyclone. Furthermore, the high risk coastal areas are protected by dam and the height of existing shelters varies from 3. The authors claim that in Bangladesh various studies on sea level rising and flooding have been started since the extreme water level of 10m of s cyclone which did smack the coast and the whole coastal regions went under water. Therefore, from the above discussion it is clear that if proper physical actions can be taken, the loss of lives and economies will be lesser.

In addition, in those areas people have been coping with the changing environment by initiating new policies of adaptation, changes in their land use practices etc. From the literature it is found that there is not sufficient research work on the adaptation process of the people living in the coastal zones. My proposed study will try to fill this gap up. The present research will assess the effects of climate variability on the physical and social environment using sociological approaches and will also explore the adaptation processes developed by the government and NGOs as well as the lay people of that locality following the participant observation method of data collection which is one of the techniques of qualitative research methodology.

Bangladesh Government, with the help of international donor agencies and non-government organizations, has been implementing some initiatives to reduce the loss of lives and damages to properties because of cyclone and sea level rising such as cyclone shelter building, construction of embankments, afforestation project, the Coastal Greenbelt project. At the same time, some NGOs have also been working in the coastal regions of Bangladesh to diminish the vulnerability due to cyclone storm and sea level rising.

In addition, after cyclone, Bangladesh red Crescent Society started cyclone forecasting and warning system to minimize the loss of lives and properties. It, sometimes together with the government, also develops some disaster management project to reinforce the capacity of the people living in coastal areas of Bangladesh.

In Bangladesh, the coastal areas are highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change specially sea level rising since the areas contain low-lying land mostly. As the field of my present research, South-West coastal region of Bangladesh will be considered. Geographically it is located at It has units of household and total area According to the Bangladesh Census, Manpura has a population of and males constitute I suppose the notion of social justice of environment, participatory democracy and decentralization in the name of local government could be great solutions to the sea level rising problem.

I strongly do believe that the study outcomes will help people increase their adaptability with their immediate changing environment. Some people engage in shrimp hatchery while others in agricultural crop productions and consequently, their needs are different. The local government can help them out of their transitional periods and provide them proper training so that they can cope with the changing environment.

The study results will also help people changing their previous habit of using natural resources in an unsustainable way. In so doing, government institutions and NGOs can take some effective methods such as public campaign, community meetings etc.

opunfanrenew.tk Since the research will be conducted using participant observation which is a data collection technique of qualitative research method.