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Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Peter Troxler , Next Economy: lateral - local - circular Follow. Published in: Technology , Business. License: CC Attribution License. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Third Industrial Revolution? Peter Troxler 2.

From Exchange to Contributions

Peter Troxler 4. Gershenfeld [P]ossession of the means for industrial production has long been the dividing line between workers and owners. But if those means are easily acquired, and designs freely shared, then hardware is likely to follow the evolution of software. The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop, 6. Gershenfeld [T]he killer app for personal fabrication in the developed world is technology for a market of one, personal expression in technology …. And the killer app for the rest of the planet is [to overcome] the instrumentation and the fabrication divide, people locally developing solutions to local problems.

Gershenfeld[T]he killer app for personal fabrication in the developed world istechnology for a market of one, personal expression in technology …. And the killer app for the rest of the planet is [to overcome] theinstrumentation and the fabrication divide, people locally developingsolutions to local problems. TED talk, 8.

Rifkin[T]he conventional top-down organization of society that characterizedmuch of the economic, social, and political life of the fossil-fuel basedindustrial revolutions is giving way to distributed and collaborativerelationships in the emerging green industrial era. We are in the midst ofa profound shift in the very way society is structured, away fromhierarchical power and toward lateral power.

Rifkin[A] new digital manufacturing revolution now opens up the possibility of … the production of durable goods. In the new era, everyone canpotentially be their own manufacturer …. Welcome to the world ofdistributed manufacturing. Rifkin1st revolution 2nd revolution 3rd revolutionPrinting press Electrical com- InternetSteam-powered munication Renewables technology Oil-powered Smart buildings combustion Smart grid engine E-mobility19th century 20th century Or: Is Fab Lab Easy?

Gilbreth Frank Bunker Gilbreth - scientific management motion study Industrial Revolution This is not to say that individualvision and brilliance will no longer matter; rather, I think that the cuttingedge of open-source software will belong to people who start fromindividual vision and brilliance, then amplify it through the effectiveconstruction of voluntary communities of interest. Yochai Benkleron a political economy of information1.

Epub From Exchange To Contributions: Generalizing Peer Production Into The Physical World

London: Tavistock. Facilitated by thetechnical infrastructure of the Internet, the hallmark of this socio-technicalsystem is collaboration among large groups of individuals, sometimes in theorder of tens or even hundreds of thousands, who cooperate effectively toprovide information, knowledge or cultural goods without relying on eithermarket pricing or managerial hierarchies to coordinate their commonenterprise. Benkler, Y.

The Journal of Political Philosophy 14, no. Landscape Understanding Knowledge as a Commons. From Theory to Practice. Tineke M.

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Egyedi and Donna C. A gift implies a choice, but these commons are often marked by coercion. Neoliberalism came to recognize the commons, but took steps to ensure that it would evolve in ways compatible with the larger market agenda. It was pointed out by Wolfgang Sachs, however, that historically most commons have not involved choice. They resemble open-access regimes or tragedies of the commons in which the commoners do not truly govern themselves or establish their own rules and sanctions; they are failed commons.

Do these compromised forms of collective governance constitute commons or not? These are theoretical and definitional issues about the commons that deserve greater exploration. Needless to say, there are many unresolved issues in moving a commons agenda forward. Much of the conversation focused on how to shape the commons as a viable political project. Institutionalizing a commons strategy and agenda. But we need some institutionalization to bring together the isolated pockets of commons work.

How can we affirm protection for the commons without falling into the trap of expert-run planetary management? Since the age of unlimited economic growth is coming to an end, what are other sources of well-being?


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How can we foster sources of well-being that are not exclusively monetary? What is the politics of fostering well-being instead of GDP? We must find ways to secure rights and well-being with less money than before. A key strategic issue, therefore, is to locate the places in which the commons can be deepened. George Caffentzis suggested that we must study how commons come into being. Often, they arise as a result of tragedies of the commons or enclosures. One difficult task is to mobilize the social and political energy and imagination to build new commons.

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We must prod people to go beyond their usual norms and sense of the possible. Any changes sought by the North must include a commitment to global justice for the South; the invention of new types of alternative livelihoods; and a recognition that a no-growth economy will be disastrous for the South. Wolfgang Sachs sees four possible responses to the scarcity that lies ahead: 1 Use social exclusion to limit access and benefits from scarce resources; 2 Expand the means of production at any cost through nuclear, biomass, genetic and biotech engineering, etc.

From the commons perspective, the first two choices — social exclusion and increased production — are not solutions at all, from the commons perspective. The third choice, greater efficiency, will not work because aggregate growth will simply eclipse whatever efficiency gains are introduced. Only the fourth choice is promising, and that is where the commons could be an important part of the solution. The state and the commons. One unresolved issue involves the role of the state with respect to the commons.

‘Libraries’ of the Peer Production Era

It has already been noted that the commons discourse offers a defense against the state. But it remains a unclear how the state should interact with the commons. What degree of sanction and support should it provide, and what degree of independence? Caffentzis noted that the Zapitistas have embraced the commons as a constitutional matter; the Bolivians are considering constitutional changes that would recognize common property; and Ecuador has adopted a new clause in its constitution explicitly recognizing the rights of the environment.

But the risk is that a commons would be seen as state-managed property. This would undermine the commons because people would have no direct sense of responsibility for collective resources; authority would be delegated to government and politicians, and familiar patterns of capture and corruption would re-appear.

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Any discussion of the commons raises the issue of whether it is a means of defensive resistance or a pro-active strategy. And yet even though the resources and politics of the two classes of commons differ greatly, they are not entirely different beasts with nothing in common.

Digital tools are often used by commoners to help manage and improve natural and physical commons. People in poor, rural areas in developing countries may find valuable knowledge, assistance of coordination of work through the Internet. Franz Nahrada cited his experiences with the Global Villages Network, which is a worldwide community of villages that use the Internet to promote economic and social innovation. His experience is that digital technologies can help increase collaboration with nature. On the other hand, the denizens of the digital commons are generally oblivious to the material bases of computer production and its environmental effects the mining of minerals, the disposal of old computers, etc.

From exchange to contributions generalizing peer production into the physical world

In such circumstances, reliance on online commons is seen as exclusionary. What is needed is a critical perspective on material basis of new technology and its designed-in behaviors. We also need to explore the ways in which digital commons and natural commons interact. There are, of course, many other unanswered question.

https://volunteerparks.org/wp-content/ritocip/1370.php How should the commoners engage in the battle of ideas with neoliberalism?