Section 2 requires that such financial security be adequate to meet the requirements set out in section 1. Section enables the Board to take a range of enforcement actions in the event of a violation or threatened violation of the Statute or a rule or Board order, while section specifies various misdemeanors which will be subject to criminal penalties, including:. Under section , if a person is committing or about to commit a violation of the Statute or any order or rule that will cause substantial pollution, the person may, subject to certain conditions, be ordered to stop, avoid, or moderate the activity causing the violation, including through immediate closure or shutdown of any well.
Criminal penalties. Civil penalties. Each day of violation constitutes a separate violation.
Emergencies -- notice and hearing. This authority is limited to acts the harmful effects of which will not be remedied immediately after the commission or cessation of the act or will represent an immediate threat to public health, safety, or welfare. The notice must state the provision alleged to be violated, the facts alleged to constitute the violation, the nature of corrective action the board requires, and the time within which the action is to be taken.
For the purposes of this section, service by mail is complete on the date of mailing. The board may deny a request for a later time if it finds that the person to whom the order is directed is not complying with the order.
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If the board considers it practicable, the hearing must be held in the county where the violation is alleged to have occurred. As soon as practicable after the hearing, the board shall affirm, modify, or set aside the order. An action for review of the order of the board may be initiated in the manner specified in The initiation of an action or taking of an appeal may not stay the effectiveness of the order unless the court finds that the board did not have reasonable cause to issue an order under this section.
Under section of the Montana Oil and Gas Statute, the Oil and Gas Conservation Board is required to issue an operator with a certificate of project completion once the following conditions are met:. Before issuing a certificate of completion, the Board is also required under section 5 to solicit and consider comments from the Department of Environmental Quality although the Board is nonetheless responsible for making the final decision.
Issuance of a certificate of completion forms the basis for the transfer from the operator to the state of liability for the storage reservoir and stored CO 2 , in accordance with section 7. Section of the Montana Oil and Gas Statute provides for liability in respect of storage reservoirs and stored CO 2 to transfer from the operator to the state following the issuance of a certificate of project completion, subject to several conditions. Following issuance of a certificate of completion, the Oil and Gas Conservation Board is required to ensure that the operator monitors the wells and reservoir, in order to verify compliance with the various conditions, for a period of twenty five years.
After this period has elapsed, the operator can transfer title to the storage reservoir and stored CO 2 to the state, provided that:. This transfer encompasses all rights and interests in and all responsibilities associated with the storage reservoir and the stored CO 2. Although made without payment or compensation, the transfer will release the operator and all persons who generated any injected CO 2 from all regulatory requirements and liability associated with the reservoir and the CO 2. Any financial security must also be released, and the state will become responsible for monitoring and managing the reservoir and stored CO 2 until the federal government assumes this responsibility.
If the operator does not succeed in making this transfer, it will be liable for the reservoir and stored CO 2 indefinitely, but may petition the Board every twenty five years to request such transfer.
The fee must be based on the anticipated actual expenses that will be incurred in monitoring and managing reservoirs post-closure. If, however, an operator chooses to indefinitely accept liability pursuant to section 9 a , the fee must be remitted to the operator. Where an operator is required to maintain liability under section 9 b , the fee must not be remitted.
Temporary Class II injection well operating fee. All money collected under this section must be forwarded to the state treasurer for deposit in the state special revenue fund and must be used for the purpose prescribed in subsection 1. However, the assessment fixed by the board may not exceed the limits prescribed in subsection 1.
The amount of the fee must be expressed in dollars. Class II injection well operating fee -- carbon dioxide injection well operating fee. Effective on occurrence of contingency Geologic storage reservoir administrative fee -- account established. If a geologic storage operator chooses to indefinitely accept liability pursuant to 9 a , the board shall remit the fee to the operator.
If a geologic storage operator is required to maintain liability pursuant to 9 b , the board may not remit the fee. The Montana Oil and Gas Statute forms part of the Montana Code, and sets out the functions and responsibilities of the Montana Oil and Gas Conservation Board in regulating oil and gas activities and, following amendments made in , the injection of CO2 for geological storage. The Statute also addresses the rights, obligations and liabilities of operators in undertaking such activities, including by providing for operators to transfer their obligations and liabilities to the state following project completion, subject to certain conditions.
Montana Oil and Gas Statute. Regulatory scope and definitions. Section Instrument Text Classification of CO 2. Instrument Text Summary Section 9 of the Montana Oil and Gas Statute states that, for the purposes of administering CO 2 injection wells under the Statute, CO 2 within a storage reservoir does not constitute a pollutant, a nuisance, or a hazardous or deleterious substance.
Injection of CO 2 into a storage reservoir in accordance with a permit issued under the Statute is also expressly excluded from: the definition of contamination of groundwater under Title 75 Chapter 5 section of the Montana Code; and groundwater permit requirements under Title 75 Chapter 5 section Composition of CO 2 stream. Geographical coverage, exclusions and prohibitions.
These lands include, among others: all lands in Montana lawfully subject to its police powers, including all state-owned lands; lands of the United States or lands subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, to the extent that oil and gas conservation by the United States on such lands fails to effect the intent and purposes of the Statute; and any lands committed to a unit agreement approved by the secretary of the interior or the secretary's duly authorized representative.
Section Section Section Preservation of property rights. Section Section Instrument Text Summary Section 1 of the Montana Oil and Gas Statute provides that issuance of a permit for a CO 2 injection well does not: prejudice the rights of property owners within a geologic storage reservoir to exercise rights that have not been committed to a storage reservoir; or prevent a mineral owner or lessee from drilling through or near a storage reservoir to explore for and develop minerals, provided that the activities meet requirements that preserve the reservoir's integrity and implement the Statute.
Instrument Text Summary Section 1 of the Montana Oil and Gas Statute provides that issuance of a permit for a CO 2 injection well does not prevent a mineral owner or lessee from drilling through or near a storage reservoir to explore for and develop minerals, provided that the activities meet requirements that preserve the reservoir's integrity and implement the Statute. Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells. Javaid Zaidi. Luigi Fortuna. Jaleh Samadi. Mark Deakin. Maurizio Di Paolo Emilio. Microbial Resources for Sustainable Energy.
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- Gas Injection for Disposal and Enhanced Recovery | Wiley Online Books.
- Texas RRC - Enhanced Recovery.
- Montana: Montana Oil and Gas Statute.
- Mutative Media: Communication Technologies and Power Relations in the Past, Present, and Futures (Lecture Notes in Social Networks).
Qiquan Qiao. Anne Elise Creamer. Read about plans for enhanced oil recovery in Douglas County. Though both saltwater disposal and enhanced oil recovery have been known to cause earthquakes, disposal is more likely than enhanced recovery to cause them. Why are there so many earthquakes in south-central Kansas and Oklahoma? Since , thousands of temblors strong enough for people to feel have struck parts of Oklahoma and Kansas.
The number of quakes in south-central Kansas picked up in The most recent USGS annual report on the matter concluded that parts of these two states now face seismicity risks similar to those in earthquake-prone California. Though an oil and gas industry practice called fracking has been shown in some cases to cause earthquakes that are strong enough for people to feel, geophysicists say the main culprit causing the temblors in Oklahoma and central Kansas is saltwater disposal, not fracking. In Kansas, state energy regulators have since reduced saltwater injection rates for wells in parts of south-central Kansas.aredrietimes.tk
Underground Injection: Oil and Gas Wastewater Disposal and Enhanced Recovery | Clean Water Action
The number of earthquakes fell sharply. Can we predict whether a new saltwater injection operation will cause earthquakes? But they have identified statistical trends that give clues regarding the likelihood of quakes. For example, disposal wells that take in high volumes of wastewater are more likely to cause earthquakes than their lower-volume counterparts.
What exactly is a high volume? This University of Colorado research points to wells that take in more than , barrels of fluid a month, while this University of Texas study looked at wells receiving , barrels a month. Each barrel holds 42 gallons. High volumes alone do not fully explain quakes. Other factors come into play, such as the proximity of wastewater wells to fault lines. Across the United States, most wastewater wells — disposal and enhanced recovery wells alike — have not been linked to seismic activity.
What is fracking? Companies can use hydraulic fracturing — better known as fracking — to boost oil or gas output. It usually works like this: A company builds a well and, before starting production, injects fracking fluid at a high pressure to create cracks in the rock. Then production starts and those cracks help extract the oil or gas. According to an article in Seismological Research Letters , a publication of the Seismological Society of America, companies apply the fracking treatment to tens of thousands of wells nationwide each year.