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e-book Global Community Policing: Problems and Challenges

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When citizens feel safe where they live, work, and play, they put more value in their local police department. Businesses and people move to communities that have a great quality of life.

Peace Building Initiative - Community Policing & Peacebuilding Processes

Economic vitality equals jobs, and jobs reduce poverty-related issues. Smart policing initiatives embrace technology to prevent and solve crime. Intelligence-led policing uses technology to disrupt criminal activity or prevent it from ever occurring through a focus on intelligence gathering. Technology can build public trust and destroy it as we have seen with some sensationalized videos that have gone viral on social media. Some of these interactions do not always appear appropriate, and some are outright unlawful or unethical actions by a small fraction of officers.

Media coverage based on emotions, rather than facts, can erode public trust even in communities far away from where such an incident occurred e. In reality, less than 2 percent of all police encounters end up in any use of force.

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Despite the high-profile uses of force in the past few years, a recent Gallup poll shows the majority of people, including communities of color do trust the police. A key component of maintaining community trust is ensuring that those who would do harm never get into the law enforcement profession, or if already in the profession, are removed.

Hiring the right people using comprehensive background investigations is imperative, and once the right people are hired, they must be developed. Continual training is an essential component of developing a professional police officer. This training must include de-escalation techniques to reduce the number of use-of-force incidents. The pillars of procedural justice must be part of police staff development training so that transparency, fairness, voice allowing the public to share its side of the story , and impartiality are second nature.

A professional police agency must also rely on a standard or benchmark to determine best practices and policies for how they provide police services to their community.

National- and state-level accreditation programs for law enforcement have become a popular way to determine what the best practices are. Recognized agencies in this program must meet standards that have been determined to be the best practices for professional law enforcement in Texas. These best practices include policy standards and requirements for everything from use of force to evidence collection. Accreditation programs can also reduce civil liability claims. Modern law enforcement agencies are adopting a customer service—driven model of policing that embraces the prevention goal laid as the foundation of the profession in the early s by Sir Robert Peel.

Effective police departments embrace technology, develop their staff, follow best practices for the profession, and understand when to employ de-escalation techniques.

Community policing

The ultimate goal for any law enforcement agency must be to improve the quality of life in its community for those who live, work, and play there. A prevention-focused model of community policing can strengthen trust between the community and the police that serve it. A survey was sent out by the author to several hundred people in Central Texas to gauge public views of law enforcement and expectations on how police services should be delivered.

The survey had a 75 percent response rate. Questions focused on the following areas: social media; how the public receives their news; trust of the police; trust of the news media; what the goal of the police should be; community-police partnerships; transparency; and the role of the police. All respondents percent indicated it is important for the police to build partnerships with the community to prevent crime. This important component of community policing is not understood by all law enforcement executives, but the survey results demonstrate that it is understood by the community.

Nearly 93 percent of those surveyed believe police should be problem-solvers who proactively seek out ways to prevent crime and improve public safety by forging strong partnerships with the community. When asked if the police should see their role as warriors, guardians, servants, or servant-guardians, over 80 percent said the police should be servant-guardians. Respondents were asked to rank the following things they believe improves police transparency: body cameras, local police sharing information on social media, what the local media says about police, police outreach programs, and officers building relationships with community members.

Forty-three percent ranked officers building relationships with community members as the number one choice for improving police transparency. The second highest rated choice for improving transparency was community outreach programs like Coffee with a Cop, National Night Out, and citizen police academies. Police departments sharing information on social media was ranked third.

Positive community policing

Despite the intense media coverage of body cameras, they were ranked fourth. Local media coverage of the police was ranked last with a very low percentage of respondents choosing it above any other choice. Only 8 percent believed the media provided fair coverage of the police, and only 6 percent felt media coverage was based on facts. Nearly 87 percent of those surveyed indicated they trust their local police department. Only about 1 percent somewhat disagreed with the statement that they trust their police department, and just over 12 percent somewhat agreed with the statement that they trust their local police department.

This local data supports a recent Gallup poll indicating support for law enforcement in the United States has risen. For the past three years in a row, crime in Belton, Texas, has decreased despite the rapid growth of the city and surrounding region. Community trust of the police department is also at an all-time high. In , Belton embarked on an aggressive campaign of restoring community trust and professionalizing the department using community policing and problem-oriented policing principles as framework for a modern model of policing based on 19th century policing principles.

Each officer is held accountable for activities, nuisances, problems, and crime prevention programs in his or her sector. Kenneth Peak has argued that community policing in the United States has evolved through three generations: innovation to , diffusion to and institutionalization to present day. This era was also saw the development of such programs as the broken windows theory and problem-oriented policing.

The diffusion era followed, in which larger departments began to integrate aspects of community policing, often through grants that initiated specialized units. These ideas are implemented in a multi-pronged approach using a variety of aspects, such as broadening the duties of the police officer and individualizing the practices to the community they're policing; refocusing police efforts to face-to-face interactions in smaller patrol areas with an emphasized goal of preventing criminal activity instead of responding to it; solving problems using input from the community they're policing; and, finally, making an effort to increase service-oriented positive interactions with police.

Common methods of community-policing include: [29]. Although all societies incorporate some mechanisms of social control, [31] "policing" as we understand it today is a very particular mechanism of control. The response-centred style has also been called " fire brigade policing" in the UK. In those cases, community policing could be seen as a restoration of an earlier ideology, which had been overshadowed by reactive policing after the rise of automobiles and telecommunications.

The goal of traditional policing is to protect law-abiding citizens from criminals. As Jauregui argues, it reflects a "popular desire for justice and order through any means necessary. Traditional beat officers' focus on duty is to respond to incidents swiftly, and clear emergency calls as quickly as possible. Many officers working busy shifts only have time to respond to and clear emergency calls.

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This type of policing does not stop or reduce crime significantly; it is simply a temporary fix to a chronic problem where officers are often called to return to the same issue and individuals. In contrast, community policing's main goal is to assist the public in establishing and maintaining a safe, orderly social environment. While apprehending criminals is one important goal of community policing, it is not necessarily the most important goal.

Community policing is concerned with solving the crimes that the community is concerned about by working with and gaining support from the community. The most effective solutions include dialogue between police, government resources, citizens, and local business to address the problems affecting the community.

They use these connections to understand what the community wants out of its police officers and what the community is willing to do to solve its crime problem. The structure of the community policing organization differs in that police assets are refocused with the goals of specific, written rules to give more creative problem-solving techniques to the police officer to provide alternatives to traditional law enforcement. The experience of community alienation among police officers is closely tied to the experience of mastery , the state of mind in which an individual feels autonomous and experiences confidence in his or her ability, skill, and knowledge to control or influence external events.

As the level of community alienation or isolation that officers experience increases, there will be a corresponding decrease in officers' sense of mastery in carrying out their expanded discretionary role.

Second, a strong sense of community integration for police officers would seem to be vital to the core community policing focus of proactive law enforcement. Proactive enforcement is usually defined as the predisposition of police officers to be actively committed to crime prevention, community problem-solving, and a more open, dynamic quality-oriented law enforcement-community partnership. A lack of community support resulted in an increased sense of alienation and a greater degree of apathy among police officers.

The more police officers felt socially isolated from the community they served, the more they withdrew and the more negative they felt towards its citizens. Traditionally, determining whether police or policies are effective or not can be done by evaluating the crime rate for a geographic area.

Community policing is more complicated than simply comparing crime rates and there is no universally-accepted criteria for evaluating community policing. However, there are some structures that are commonly used. One possible way to determine whether or not community policing is effective in an area is for officers and key members of the community to set a specific mission and goals when starting out.

Once specific goals are set, participation at every level is essential in obtaining commitment and achieving goals. Street-level officers, supervisors, executives, and the entire community should feel the goals represent what they want their police department to accomplish. The U.

Criminologists have raised several concerns vis-a-vis community policing and its implementation. On the broadest conceptual level, many legal scholars have highlighted that the term "community," at the heart of "community policing," is in itself ambiguous. Others have remained skeptical of the political ambition behind community policing initiatives. For example, in Peter Waddington cautioned that the "largely uncritical acceptance with which [the notion of community policing] has been welcomed is itself a danger.

Any proposal, however attractive, should be subjected to careful and skeptical scrutiny. He said that the former was a "romantic delusion", because "there was never a time when the police officer was everyone's friend, and there will never be such a time in the future. Similarly, C.

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Global Policing Goals

Klockars and David Bayley both argue that community policing is unlikely to bring fundamental change to how police officers work, with Klockars calling it "mainly a rhetorical device". He argues the progressive and democratic ethos of shared governance inherent in community policing runs counter to central elements in police culture and more widespread understandings of crime and punishment. McDowell argued in that because community policing was a radical departure from existing ideology, implementing it would take time.

Yet another set of criticisms revolves around the potential efficacy of community policing. David Bayley has argued that enacting community policing policies may lead to a reduction in crime control effectiveness, maintenance of order in the face of violence, increase in bureaucratic and governmental power over community affairs, increases in unequal treatment, and an erosion of constitutional rights.

This in turn could be problematic, in that it could entice corruption or vigilantism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Transnational crimes are not a new phenomenon in modern international history as organized crime groups have existed in the past.