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In addition to this, the pluperfect must be imperfective in aspect because it appears with the imperfect tense more than other tenses. Now the perfect tense being imperfective in aspect has the added feature of heightened proximity. Dana and Julius R.

As this paper has shown, confusion ensues when a focus on one piece of its composition causes a neglect of the others. Grammarians of old allowed the issue of tense time to dominate while modern grammarians such has Porter and Campbell have primarily focused in on their redefinition of aspect which removes time all together. Aspect however, stands for the unaffected part of tense forms regardless of what mood they are functioning in. In short, it shows the kind of action an author is presenting to convey a specific purpose of authorial intent.

Aktionsart on the other hand is simply a function of tense forms that is its affected meaning.

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This stands for the ontological or unaffected meaning which is unobservable in the NT because it is not possible for a tense to occur without a verb. However, what one finds are verbs affected by lexical, grammatical, and contextual intrusions which form the affected meaning of a given text. The crucial thing to differentiate is how these intrusions affect the basic idea of aspect in tense forms. Therefore, Aktionsart is the meaning of the tense as used by an author in a particular utterance, affected as it were by other features of the language. The reporter analogy is helpful, but it is important to remember that it is merely a tool intended to offer a richer grasp upon the complexities of Greek verbal tense forms.

The Greek language is not in a box with restricted meaning derived from set conditions or terms whose intention was never to restrict its meaning, but only to help explain them. An author may portray the action as summary, or he may portray the action as progressive, stative, etc.


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This has nothing to do with his reality time- frame. The remoteness or proximity of these two men is irrelevant as the events recorded in their gospel accounts were in reality—past time referring.

New Testament Greek Indicative Verb Formation

Therefore, according to their intended purpose for writing they chose the proper tense form. Remoteness is an attempt to explain away time in the indicative. It does seem necessary, however, for his theory to work because he treats aspect as an unchangeable semantic feature of the verbal system. This is problematic, for instance, because what happens to a theory that holds the aorist tense form as having the semantic value of perfective aspect, when at times the aorist shows the beginning or process of an action?

One must create the idea of remoteness and call it a pragmatic changeable feature to account for what appear as craters in the theory. Beyond this, these definitions have Wallace, Greek Grammar, This is not a question of accurate description vs. Both obscurity and mystery engulf the theory of remoteness because Campbell does not articulate it in a functional and verifiable manner.

He only explains it as an artist would describe a painting to an art student. Simply describing the painting does not teach the student how to reproduce it. Campbell does not show how his theory works or why it matters. In reference to the argument of time and specifically time in the indicative, this paper has pointed out that Wallace, along with Dana and Mantey, and Robertson, all agree that time is incorporated into the Greek verbal system through the indicative.

Not that popular agreement verifies a position, but the reality that the position is not new seems to prove the case. It is significant, that before the incarnation of Christ, the LXX translators translated the Hebrew text into Greek with full use of the time element contained in the indicative mood. The NT holds a vast treasure trove of lexical, grammatical, and contextual intrusions that alone dictate the meaning of verbs.

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Edinburgh: T. Clark, Barrick, William D. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Binnick, Robert I. New York: Oxford University, Accessed July 9, Birkey, Arlan J. TREN edocs.

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Accessed July 8, Borik, Olga. Aspect and Reference Time. Oxford: Oxford University, Burton, Ernest De Witt. Grand Rapids: Kregel, Chicago: The University of Chicago, Buttman, Alexander. Grammar of the New Testament Greek. Andover: Warren F. Campbell, Constantine R. Basics of Verbal Aspect in Biblical Greek. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, Studies in Biblical Greek, New York: Peter Lang, Comrie, Bernard. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.

Cambridge: Cambridge University, George Stock. A Grammar of Septuagint Greek. Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe. Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, 20—6. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, Dana, H. Reprint, New York: MacMillan, Decker, Rodney J. Adobe PDF. Evans, T.

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    Hopper, Paul J. Typological Studies in Language, Vol. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, PDF Preview. Table of Contents. Related Content. Editors: Stanley E. Porter , Gregory P. Fewster and Christopher D.