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The Knowledge Frontier

Buy eBook. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book In this collection of new essays, Sander Gilman muses on Jewish memory and representation throughout the twentieth-century. Show all.

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He illustrates these features of the model by an example drawn from the history of medicine, that is the Germ Theory of Disease—one of the big revolutions in medicine started about and largely succeeded by about This revolution ended up establishing the germ theory of disease as a new paradigm for medicine, and brought antisepsis into the practice of surgery. Tellingly, Gillies argues that the distinction between tech first and tech last is important, but many scientific revolutions can stems from an emi.

In the paper Withstanding Tensions: Scientific Disagreement and Epistemic Tolerance Dunja Seselja, Christian Strasser, and Jan Willem Wieland deal with the issue of disagreement in science and how this can be shown to be rational, looking at similarities to epistemic paradoxes.

Then, they distin- guish between the internal recognition of disagreements—by the participants in a debate, and the external one—and the outside observer e. They argue that scientific controversies often involve such rational disagreements, and set out to show how scientists can tentatively recognize that their disagreement is rational: namely, on the basis of content- and form-based indices. They show that the tension characterizing rational disagreements has properties similar to epistemic paradoxes and to the notion of toleration—as it is used in eth- ics and politics.

In her paper Heuristics as Methods: Validity, Reliability and Velocity Anna Grandori deals with the application of heuristics to economic problems, showing the importance and performance implications of rational heuristics in economics, in particular decisions in which resources are scarce and performance important. In order to investigate ways of generating hypotheses Ippoliti exam- ines four hypotheses for dealing with the behavior of stock market prices, arguing that the generation of new hypotheses draws on a preliminary bottom-up, verbal, non-formal conceptualization, and maintained that this is the only way to incor- porate the domain-specific features of the subject.

In particular he examine the construction process of one hypothesis for stock market prices behavior, that is the far-from-equilibrium hypothesis. In order to do this he analyzes the genera- tion of the hypotheses that preceded the far-from-equilibrium hypothesis. Then, he examines the Fractal Market Hypothesis, which offers a new interpretation of the data and shows new properties of financial markets, undermining the effectiveness of the notion of equilibrium.

He argues that even though it does not explain the reasons for these properties and does not offer predictions that can be put to use—due to the sensi- tivity to initial conditions—it generates new mathematics and explain to us when we can expect markets to be stable. Hence, he analyses the Reflexive Market Hypothesis see [28] , which has received little scholarly attention but offers a cogent, qualitative explanation of several properties identified but not explained by the Fractal Market Hypothesis. This hypothesis draws on the distinction between endogenous and exogenous forces in the behavior of prices and it enables us to explain boom-and-bust and crashes.

In the end, he approach the Far-form- Equilibrium Hypothesis, showing how it relies on the distinction between exog- enous and endogenous forces and does develop a means to forecast crashes and bubbles, for instance the so called flash-crashes e. The main point of this paper is to show how the means of generating these hypotheses is essential to assessing their efficiency and plausibility.

More specifically he argues that in formulating a hypothesis, a selection of features of SMP is made for incorporation in a theory. This selection may be expressed mathematically in most of the cases. An examination of these means of generation can show us why some of these hypotheses are successful and efficient and some not, and can also shed light on the extent to which a particular hypothesis can be usefully applied.

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Thus Ippoliti argues that the study of the means of generation of hypotheses offers us a guide to formulating new hypotheses in a reliable and cogent fashion. More specifically he states that the generation of a new hypothesis has to draw on a preliminary verbal conceptualization a discourse on a specific subject, that is a verbal and non-for- mal description of it, which establishes the entities to investigate, their properties and relations, and a set of variables that affect them.

This is a bottom-up process and it is the only way to incorporate the domain specific features of the subject in a plausible representation of it, which can possibly end up in a mathematical theory. Thus his thesis is that generation of new hypotheses and, possibly, new mathematics stems from a preliminary verbal reasoning and conceptualization, which delimitate the variables and the features of a phenomenon. Ippoliti References 1. Sagan, C.

Random House, New York 2. Cellucci, C. Logic in Relation to Mathematics, Evolution, and Method. Springer, New York 3. Hamming, R. The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics.

Productive efficiency

Monthly 87 2 , 81—90 4. Dummett, M.

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    Oxford University Press, Oxford 6. Rota, G. Laterza, Roma-Bari 8. Laterza, Roma-Bari 9. Mancosu, P. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Lakatos, I. Nickles, T.

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    • Reidel, Dordrecht Springer, New York College Publications, London Gillies, D. Oxford University Press, Oxford Kantorovich, A. Suny Press, New York Groshoz, E. Oxford University Press, New York Grosholz, E. Magnani, L. Processes of Discovery and Explanation. Kluwer Academic, New York Scientific Discovery, Technological Innovation, Values. Bacon, F. Novum Organon. Laudan, L. In: Nickles, T. Scientific Discovery, Logic, and Rationality, pp. Wolpert, D. IEEE Trans. Friedman, M. In: Caldwell, B. Fama, E.

      Finance 25 2 , — Soros, G. Wiley, New York Sornette, D. Princeton University Press, Princeton E 85 5 , emi. Related Papers. Scientific Discovery Reloaded. By Emiliano Ippoliti. Building Theories. The Heuristic Way. Rome, June By Monica Ugaglia.

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      Modeling and Inferring in Science. From a Heuristic Point of View. By Emiliano Ippoliti and Cesare Cozzo. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.