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What does it tell me? What does it have to do with densities? Is it just a "synonym" for densities? Also, as far as I understood, the phases aren't like the phases of "normal" matter, e.

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So, what do the phases look like? Why is it "liquid" and not liquid? If you have taken statistical mechanics, you should be familiar with the concept of chemical potential.

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If not, the Wikipedia article on chemical potential should be sufficient let me know if it isn't. Essentially, chemical potential is a measure of how the energy of a system changes as you add another particle to it. Baryons in the nucleus are thought to behave as a Fermi liquid, so, barring some changes in the magnitude of certain interactions, the dependency should still be there. Since baryon chemical potential rises with density, the axis labels are interchangeable without much trouble.

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Lectures on Quantum Chromodynamics. The Phases of Quantum Chromodynamics. Quantum Chromodynamics on the Lattice.

Lattice Methods for Quantum Chromodynamics. Quantum Chromodynamics: Perturbative and Nonperturbative Aspects. The aim of both the theoretical and experimental work is to explore and fix key points in the phase diagram for quantum chromodynamics. Phase diagrams are maps, showing, for example, how changes in pressure and temperature determine the phases of water, whether ice, liquid, or vapor.

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  • A phase diagram of QCD would map the distribution of ordinary matter known as hadronic matter , the quark-gluon plasma, and other possible phases of QCD such as color superconductivity. The computations to analyze the accelerator data are distributed to various clusters.


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    Calculations of QCD using lattice gauge theory, on the other hand, require the world's biggest and fastest supercomputers. Direct comparisons can achieve more than either approach alone.

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    One of the basic requirements of any phase diagram is to establish its scale. A phase diagram of water might be based on the Celsius temperature scale, defined by the boiling point of water under normal pressure i. Although the boiling point changes with pressure - at higher altitudes water boils at lower temperatures - these changes are measured against a fixed value. The scale of the QCD phase diagram is defined by a transition temperature at the zero value of "baryon chemical potential.

    Through extensive calculations and actual data from the STAR experiment, the team was indeed able to establish the QCD transition temperature. Before they could do so, however, they first had to realize an equally significant result, showing that the highly dynamical systems of RHIC's gold-gold collisions, in which the quark-gluon plasma winks in and out of existence, in fact achieve thermal equilibrium. Here's where theory and experiment worked hand in hand.

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    Yet because differences in values of the kind observed by STAR are related to fluctuations in thermodynamic values predicted by lattice gauge theory, said Ritter, "by comparing our results to the predictions of theory, we have shown that what we measure is in fact consistent with the fireballs reaching thermal equilibrium. This is an important achievement. The scientists were now able to proceed with confidence in establishing the scale of the QCD phase diagram.